From The Plant Encyclopedia
4 - 20
- Cultivation: Easy-To-Grow
- Light: Sun
- Soil: Rich
- pH: 6, 7, 8
- Moisture: Medium, Dry, Well-Drained
- Form: Vine
- Habit: Deciduous
- Flower: Small
- Fruit/Seed: Medium, Berry, Green, Yellow, Red, Black
- Foliage: Leaves, Green
- Uses: Edible, Medicinal, Ornamental, Craft, Industrial
Vitis (grapevines) is a genus of about 60 species of vining plants in the Flowering plant family Vitaceae. The genus is made up of species predominantly from the Northern hemisphere. It is economically important as the source of Grapes, both for direct consumption of the fruit and for fermentation to produce Wine. The study and cultivation of grapevines is called Viticulture.
The exact number of species is not certain, with species in Asia in particular being poorly defined. Estimates range from 40 to more than 60.
Popular Cultivated Species
The Common Grape Vine Vitis vinifera
Fox Grape Vitis labrusca
Tatarian Honeysuckle Lonicera tatarica
In the wild, all species of Vitis are normally dioecious, but under domestication, variants with Perfect flowers appear to have been selected.
Most Vitis species have 38 chromosomes (n=19), but 40 (n=20) in subgenus Muscadinia. In that respect the Muscadinia are the same as other Vitaceae such as Ampelocissus, Parthenocissus, and Ampelopsis.
The fruit of several Vitis species are grown commercially for consumption as fresh Grapes and for fermentation into Wine. Vitis vinifera is the most important species.
The leaves of the grape vine itself are considered edible and are used in the production of Dolmades and Vietnamese Lot leaves.
The following list of top wine-producers shows the corresponding areas dedicated to grapes for wine making:
- Spain 11,750 km²
- France 8,640 km²
- Italy 8,270 km²
- Turkey 8,120 km²
- United States 4,150 km²
- Iran 2,860 km²
- Romania 2,480 km²
- Portugal 2,160 km²
- Argentina 2,080 km²
- Australia 1,642 km²
- Lebanon 1,221 km²
Pests and diseases
The Black vine weevil is another root pest.
Grapevines are used as food plants by the Larvae of some Lepidoptera species - see List of Lepidoptera that feed on grapevines.